I have been asked a few times, how to expose LOG footage correctly or "how do I get perfect skin tones when using LOG." Since more and more footage is being shot with various LOG gammas I thought I'd go a little deeper into the subject.
With older cameras everyone shot with a standard non gamma profile, where what you see is what you get. Skin tones were generally placed around 70 percent on a waveform, and to be safe, you'd stop down a fraction to protect your highlights. With LOG gammas everything changed.
Cameras can now record more and more stops of dynamic range, but at present the finished product hasn't changed, i.e. television sets still only show around 6-9 stops of dynamic range. The metaphore often used for this situation is a bucket. Your camera is a large 15 stop bucket which needs to pour its footage into a much smaller REC 709 bucket TV.
So firstly why use a LOG at all if that extra dynamic range can't be used? The answer is really about choice. Protecting the highlights and shooting all of this range in contrast means an editor can keep that information in the grade to create a better finished picture. They can apply a LUT in post which will map the LOG footage to a 709 curve. Highlights, such as a bright sky can be brought down to create a better picuture.
A cameras maximum dynamic range will only be availble when recording in LOG. To give you an example from my camera (Canon C300 mkii), it will record 14-15 stops of DR on LOG2, 13.5 stop of DR on LOG or LOG3 and 11.5 in BT709. So wherever possible I shoot with a LOG curve to give the maximum I can give to the editor. Sony cameras shoot S log, but the curves are essentially doing the same thing.
So how do we expose LOG correctly?
There are a few things you hear all the time on this subject, and these are also three things I'd recommend doing:
1) Expose to the right (meaning to the right of the histogram i.e slight over exposure).
2) Use an 18 percent grey card
3) Send a normal REC 709 curve to the monitor/eye peice and expose that as you normally would
Three diferent methods, so which one is right?
Essentially they all are.
Lets work through these points in reverse order.
3) Send a REC 709 LUT to the monitor/eye peice
A LUT or look up table can be used to give an aproximation of what the footage will look like after a grade. You are still recording in LOG but you can look at a more saturated and colourful image for shooting purposes. It's important to note that you are just overlaying a LUT not applying it, so this is an aproximation of what the footage will look like in post. The reason I bring this up is I have noticed different monitors, eyepeices and LCDs treat this LOG footage with a LUT slightly differently. Sometimes one colour might look slightly odd or different, but it doesn't matter as all the information is recorded correctly in the LOG footage.
This works well in my opinion and it is quick and easy. Many monitors and eye peices have their own 709 curves, or you can apply them from the camera. It's worth testing it out to see if it works well for you. There are lots of ways to test this out, but just expose something using the 709 curve and then flick back to the LOG and you'll be able to see what is happening.
Typically the LOG footage will look under exposed by a couple stops, as it is retaining extra highlights. You could throw in a grey card to the scene as well so you can get a reading of middle grey.
To make this clearer, here is how the above might work. You apply a 709 LUT. You frame up a persons face. You expose that face as you think looks correct. (You could even set the wave form to respond to the LUT footage instead of the LOG) The skin tones will be sitting at about 70 on a waveform monitor that is looking at the LUT. You keep the same exposure and remove the LUT. The wavform reading will drop from around 70 to between 32-38 depending on how your cameras LOG works.
There are other advantages to using a 709 LUT for your monitor. The added contrast helps massively with focus. LOG footage tends to all look a bit grey and wishy washy, adding a LUT will give saturation and this helps (my eyes at least) see what is in focus, somehow the image clicks in and bites when its in focus.
I like to show LUT images certainly to clients and even directors. Some directors are tech savy and happy to look at LOG footage, but for the most part a LUT image is the way to go.
2) Use an 18 percent grey card.
Most LOG curves put middle grey around 32 to 38 % If you want to know exactly, look up the white paper on your particular camera. For the C300 mkii LOG3 and LOG set middle grey at 38% and LOG2 is at 32% Sony's S logs are usually pretty low around 32% If you aren't sure, just try it out. You could set the monitor to 709, expose a grey card by eye to what you think it should look like, then flick on the LOG curve and waveform and see where it sits. Chances are that grey will sit somewhere around that 32-38 level.
This is also very useful for nailing correct skin tones. Slightly tanned caucasion skin is going to sit at 18 percent grey. You can use your judgement to get your subject exposed correctly. You can allow a very pale skinned person's skin to sit higher than this on a wave form and very dark skin to sit slightly below this level.
1) Expose to the right.
Okay, so from the two points above we know we are going to be essentially underexposing our LOG footage as compared to REC 709. However, "expose to the right" means over expose! So how does this work?
Colourists find it easy to pull down highlights than to lift stuff from the shadows. The reason for this is that under exposed LOG footage often gets grainy or noisy when you try to lift in post.
So why should we expose to the right?
This comes down to how the camera deals with information. From middle grey up to maximum white, cameras have large amounts of room to store data. A cameras sensor has a certain number of steps per channel and will distribute these steps favouring the top end of the scale. It therefore makes sense to use this section of the scale to record our most critical peices of information - hence "expose to the right"
So the we need to use our judgement with the term "expose to the right." If we have a dark scene with no highlights and a face is our subject, we can afford to expose to the right, as we won't lose any highlights and we will be setting our exposure where the camera records lots of data. If there are many highlights we need to preserve, then we should set our exposure accordingly.
A quick word on ISO and correct exposure.
The image above is from the Canon website, which has several white papers on the their cameras and is well worth a look.
As you can see from the image above base ISO for the Canon C300 mk ii is 800. Interestingly as the ISO is lowered the number of stops available over middle grey are also lowered. With this in mind, it would make sense to lower exposure using NDs in bright situations, rather than simply lowering the ISO.
It's also worth pointing out that LOG curves don't usually work well in low light. This makes sense when you think about it. LOG is very good at preserving highlights when you have a scene with high contrast. However, in a low light scene you have very low contrast, so it makes sense not to use a LOG curve in this situation. LOG2 in particular starts to look noisy when you push it above its base sensitivity.
I would advocate turning off LOG altogether when shooting in low light, but I know many have reported good results when shooting the original LOG1 in low light.
With the latest firmware, Canon have made slight alterations to LOG2 and the have added LOG3, so which is the best LOG to use?
Shooting with a LOG curve is becoming more and more common as editors get more used to applying LUTS. I often used to shoot with a picture profile that took very little grading for fast turn around shows, but these days almost everyone seems happy to receive LOG footage, but which LOG curve to choose?
From now on I'll be switching from LOG2 to LOG3, here is why.
If you are looking solely for high dynamic range, then LOG2 is the curve for you. For high contrast bright outdoor scenes the LOG 2 curve works really well. I always shoot the LOG2 Cine Gamut preset if using this LOG, as the Cine Gamut gives the greatest colour spectrum for grading. Although it is tougher to grade from scratch, dropping the appropriate LUT on gets the editor most of the way there.
However, there are issues with LOG2, and I wouldn't recommend it for all shooting situations.
Before LOG 3 was available I shot a series of interviews against a dark grey background. I noticed that these dark areas had a fair bit of noise in them once the LUT was applied. This is something that Canon have rectified with the latest firmware upgrade and LOG2 is now less noisy in the shaddows.
I recently saw some of my LOG2 footage being graded in a soho facilities house by a top colourist. His comments were that:
1) His favourite footage to grade was always from the Ari Alexa.
2) He often found Canon footage to have some grain in the shaddowed areas
3) He advised always exposing to the right, as it is a lot easier for him to bring down exposure, than to bump it up.
No suprises there I guess, however, I was still concerned about the grain/noise in the shaddows.
Incidentally, the footage was shot at native 800 ISO, so I wasn't expecting much noise at all. When I looked at the footage on my IMAC it looked pretty clean. However, Imacs are consumer products aimed at making everthing look as nice as possible. This is not true of 4k monitors in grading suits, these are correctly calibrated and can highlight any issues with noise.
I decided to do a few basic tests to see what happens with the noise on the different LOG curves. I set a grey card up lit with an even light from a kino flo and put a white card and black next to it as a reference. The camera was set to native 800 ISO and I tried out various exposures.
Grey was placed at 39 % for LOG2 and 32.5 % for LOG 3 (Incidentally exposure did not need to be altered in order to achieve this shift in values)
The LOG footage itself looked pretty clean on all LOG curves, but applying a LUT caused a bit of grain in the shaddows. I had expected this, as the LUT is essentially bringing up the levels by a couple of stops.
With the LUT applied and at 2 stops and more under exposed, there was some noise when using the LOG2 curve, but the LOG 3 curve looked less noisy.
For many situations I would prefer to trade the extra stop of dynamic rage gained by using LOG2 for the cleaner shaddow areas that LOG3 provides.
The original Canon LOG is still available and is probably closer to LOG3 than LOG2. I would now really only use LOG1 to match the original marki C300.
Here is my video review of the Zacuto recoil rig and their new EVF, the Gratical Eye. There are more details and pictures below.
The first camera I used professionally was Sony's Betacam SP. It was well balanced, it sat perfectly on the shoulder, you could zoom in a shoot things far away without wobbling. Over the years, camera image quality improved, while camera ergonomics went backwards.
After a few years we all found ourselves buying boxes for cameras. Being able to produce near cinema quality images is nice, but not if your rig is wobbling around on your shoulder and you can't see if the shot is in focus.
This is where Zacuto have stepped in and created something that really works.
The recoil rig itself is pretty versatile. It has a really long plate and can be used with most cameras out there. Here, I am using it on the Canon C300 mark ii, but it fits nicely on to the Sony Fs7, F5/55 etc.
The Canon C300 range has always been a bit odd ergonomically, at least to my mind. It is a really top heavy camera, and all of the inputs you would expect to be at the back, like the audio XLRs, are at the front. Zacuto have managed to sort this out by relocating the LCD module and pushing the Canon side grip forwards.
The recoil rig works much better than I thought it would. The unit really fits snuggly into the shoulder and makes on the shoulder shooting so much easier. With my old rig, I would tend not to shoot with lenses longer than 50mm. Now I put on longer lenses and feel a lot more comfortable.
The quality of the engineering and workmanship on this thing is amazing. Everything is built to last. Nothing at all is plastic.
The Gratical Eye itself is awesome. I love how small this thing is. Zacuto have taken away a few of the extra ports you get with the Gratical HD, to give a much more stripped down model. The Gratical Eye is powered externally from a D-tap into a lemo connector, and the image comes from an SDI cable, and that is it. It makes the viewfinder much smaller, and to my mind much better.
As with all Zacuto EVFs, it comes with an absolute tonne of features, including, LUTS, false colour, peaking, scopes. The scopes can even be switched between monitoring the LOG footage and the LUT.
The quality of the image is really good. There have been a few shots, where looking at the LCD monitor I have thought details were being lost in the highlights, and then looked into the Gratical Eye and seen what is really going on, and have been pleased to see detail is still there.
Overall I would say this is a very high quality piece of gear that I can imagine owning for years and even swapping onto new rigs in the future when my current camera becomes obsolete. Although it certainly isn't cheap, the Gratical Eye is a bargin when you consider the price of a dedidicated EVF from many of the major camera manufacturors. The beauty of the Gratical Eye being that you can use it on any camera you choose. As for the recoil rig, you get what you pay for here, its solidly built and will last years.
NB Ethics statement: If you buy a product from the Zacuto product links above, I receive a small commission. My review of products on my site is based on what I think. If I thought this product was bad, I would say so.
I have been following Rodney Charters on Twitter for years so when I heard he was speaking with Dan Chung from www.newsshooter.com at CVP in Fitzrovia I went along.
Rodney Charters is known for shooting 24 with Keifer Sutherland and more recently Dallas and the US version of Shameless.
Rodney took as through his shooting career with a slide show of giant camera rigs, huge technocranes, green screens the size of apartment blocks and studio sets with vast numbers of people.
Rodney Charters was born in NZ and moved to London as a young man. He worked as a photographer before going into documentary film making and then feature film work in Hollywood. Interestingly, he still shoots documentary and has a great love for it.
So what can we learn from a succesful Holywood DP? His discription of shots that could be achieved with a technocrane were interesting, but its not something many of us can request on our next project.
While some DPs might refuse to work in certain conditions, or refuse to use certain lenses and lights they believe to be inferior Rodney Charters seems to want to give all sorts of things a go. He seemed so enthusiastic, like a young kid that just got his first job in TV (he was born in 1948).
He talked about his excitement when he first saw the image put out by the Canon 5dmarkii and had a slide comparing it side by side with a shot from a movie he was working on when the camera came out.
In lighting, while many people out there shun LED lights and freak out about there CRI rating, Rodey Charters is straight in there trying out all sorts of lighting options. Not all of these lighting choices were expensive either, infact many of them were incredibly cheap. He explained how he once lit an entire scene with sodium lights bought from a hardware store. He realised there was so much practical sodium lighting in the scene that he was better off adding to it with more sodium lights, than trying to get rid of it.
He also comes across as a huge fan of useful gadgets. He had an amazing little light in his pocket called an Aladin. It was tiny, but was dimable and even colour controlled from tungsten to daylight. This thing is so small it can be held or gaffer taped into place and gives a little kick of illumination.
There were other gadgets he had pictures of: an LED string of lights, which looked like a row of bullets. These things could be uncoiled and stuffed into car interiors or taped anywhere you like to give a little lift. These are the kind of thing you can pick up for pennys on ebay or amazon.
He also had an oversized looking iphone6s strung around his neck (so big it couldn't fit in his pocket). He used it on set all of the time to look up shots and photos he had be sent. Thousands of photos were constantly with him for quick reference.
I could have stayed all night listening to Mr Charters talk, and such was his enthusiasm he had to be dragged from the room, as he stood around chatting with us and asking what we were working on.
If there was one thing I took from this talk, it would be to stay inventive. As you career progresses and technolgy changes you have to move with it, embrace it and get the best you can from it. Rodney Charters is certainly someone who is doing exactly that.
Thanks to CVP in Fitzrovia for hosting this event and to Dan Chung at Newsshooter for organising it all and for Rodney Charters for being so generous sharing his time and knowledge.
I don't often get excited when a new bit of kit is released, which is probably for the best, as I'd live my life like some kind of gibbering idiot, since a new peice of kit seems to be released each week these days.
However, I'll admit I was pretty impressed when I saw Small HD has released a new series of monitors. Small HD have been busy releasing great little monitoring units for years, but these were always on-camera-monitors, and nothing over 7 inches.
The latest series of monitors start at 17 inches, and there is also 24" and 32" model.
The price structure looks like this
17" 2999 USD
24" 3499 USD
32" 7999 USD
"So what", you might be thinking, "there are loads of monitors out there at this size", and you'd be right, there are. The big difference with other monitors is that you can't drive over them in a truck or throw them through plate glasss windows. Well, you can, but I doubt they would work afterwards.
They look really nicely designed with good mounting options and also don't look overly heavy as they are very slim.
It's good to see a company like Small HD moving into this space. Even the 17 inch model would be slightly large for my purposes on lots of jobs. I travel a lot and ideally would like a director monitor that is as rugged as this one, but slightly smaller. After all, the monitor is the one peice of kit I put in the hands of directors, and let's face it, you almost expect them to be dragged down a set of stairs by a BNC. I hope this is just the start for Small HD and that there will be other products like this in the pipeline.
I recently bought the Canon C300 markii and thought I'd share some of the footage and some first impressions here.
Although the markii has the same form factor as the original C300, it immediately feels a lot more solid. The camera itself is slightly larger and built from stronger material. The first big difference is the handle. This is so much sturdier than the original. Rather than having one small screw to fix the top handle, there is now a much more robust solution. The handle is fixed with two thick screws to a plate, which is then fixed with three further screws to the camera. On the whole this is great. It means you can now pick up the camra with confidence, no matter how big your lens or other accessories. The only downside to this is that it does take a while to remove the handle as there are now five allen key screws to remove. Still, a small price to pay.
The cables running from the LCD to the camera can now be fully removed, which is a major improvement. Also, one cable is for audio and the other video. This is another big advantage for gimbal users, as you can now mount the LCD monitor with just one cable fairly efficiently.
The big change with mark ii really comes when you start looking at the images coming out of the camera. I already liked the image I was getting from the C300 but the markii really impressed me.
The dynamic range is something that immediately jumps out at you. One of the first things I shot with this camera was inside a dimily lit cafe and the sun was absolutely blasting through the windows. The camera handled it so well. I used Log2 Cine gamut, which gives a slightly flatter image than the orignial Canon Log. I know pretty much nothing about colour grading, so I simply slapped the appropriate LUT on. I thought the LUT was a bit intense and made everything a touch to contrasty. I then backed off with the LUT to 50 percent and left it at that. There is a lot more that can be done to grade the image, but I just wanted to put this up as is, so you can see what comes out of the camera. The shots using Clog 2 are at the begining part of the video above.
The shot below is a jpeg screen grab from an ungraded shot, using BT2020.
The next thing, which I just couldn't believe was the low light ability. I was tentaively going higher and higher with the ISO expecting to see grain and digital noise and it just didn't happen. I was shooting with the camera on a Ronin, so I didn't want to shoot with the lens wide open. In order to have half a chance of getting anything in focus, I decided to stop down and use the ISO. To further complicate things I was shooting half speed at 50p and 120 shutter (we were in the USA, hence 120 rather than 100).
The shot above was taken at night a couple of hours after sun set. The only light illuminating the face here is from an iphone.
The lens flares are deliberate. I was using my Leica 35mm lens which flares like crazy if you don't use the hood or matte box. I personally love it, so use it as an effect.
The shot above was taken just after sunset. Again there is no lighting here. Despite the lack of light, I really like the natural look of the image, it could certainly benefit from a grade, but I am pleased with this as a starting point. This is an image straight out of the camera with no LUT applied. For all the night time shots I didn't use LOG but shot with the BT2020 profile. This gives a decent amount of dynamic range and requires less work in post.
One of the feature I was keen to try out was the face tracking and focus. Since all of these shots were taken on the Ronin, I wanted to see if auto focus or assisted focus was possible. I found that, to my surprise, the face tracking and focus worked pretty well, with a few caveats.
The face tracking does work and the focus is smooth enough to use. However, it really functions best in decent light conditions. In daylight, or if you are lighting your subject well, the face tracking quickly picks out a person and tracks them. However, in these dark street scenes, where the director did not want any lighting, the face tracking struggles to see the face.
Another issue is that the auto focus does not work at all in slow mo. I found the best way round this was to shoot in 50p and then conform this to 25p in the edit, which gives you your half speed, but keeps the audio and the auto focus features.
A funtion that I really like was focus assist. If you are using a Canon lens, the camera is able to tell you whether to pull fowards or back to acheive focus. This was amazingly useful, particualarly when the camera was on the ronin. Even if you are using peaking, it's really tough to see what is in focus when you are running around with the ronin, but the focus assist really made it easy.
Often I would set the focus at a distance I wanted to be from the subject, and then turned on focus markers. Depending on whether the two triangles are above or or below the single triangle, lets you know which way to pull (or move). On the left shot the focus is set towards infinity and the focus is behind the flowers. In the shot on the right the focus is set too close and the focus is infront of the flowers.
This was particualarly helpful on the Ronin, and I would just move the rig closer to or further away from the subject.
It is also very useful in an interview situation if you are shooting at a wide aperture and your subject is moving backwards and forwards a bit. It is nice to have control of the focus yourself so you can decide if you want to pull focus or not.
The only thing I didn't like about the focus was that the digital zoom in now doesn't work once the camera is in record mode. This seems like a step backwards to me. This will apparently be fixed in the next firmware update. For now, I just need to learn to trust the focus guide - so far they have been amazingly accurate.
A reader of the blog wrote to me with a few questions about working as a cameraman. I thought I would publish my answers here.
1) What is the most difficult part of your job?
This is easy to answer. It's the freelance juggling act. Jobs flow in, all of them will be "pencil bookings," unconfirmed jobs. Many of these jobs will overlap, some projects will be better than others. The hard part is choosing the best jobs for your career, and the jobs you think are most likely to actually happen. All of this has to be done without offending Producers and without messing up their schedules.
2) Whats more important, a creative mind or technical knowledge ?
On the whole, Producers and Directors are looking for a balance of both of these skills. On a larger project you may have an Assistant or a Gaffer and you can rely on these people for technical camera knowledge and lighting respectively. However, on a smaller project you will need to be technically savvy. Often people will look to you for technical knowledge, Researchers, Assistant Producers and even Directors are all now starting to self-shoot. They will often come to the DoP for help and technical advice.
Also, sometimes you could be shooting miles from anywhere with no tech support and no rental facilities. If you run into technical difficulties of any description, having someone that can step in and help will always be a plus to a Director.
3) How long do you spend on planning and preparation before going on set?
This one varies massively, depending on the job. Some jobs I might get a phone call the night before, I turn up on the shoot with almost no idea of what to expect. At the other end of the spectrum a Director might call me with an idea, or a potential shoot. Initial conversations might be about budget, equipment, logistics, or what can be achieved in the time available. This might go on for months, then one day the shoot happens several months after the initial conversation.
Reading this, you might think this is a lot of prep and forethought for a job that might not happen, and you'd be right. However, Directors are often in need of this support. Of course, they might have a Production Manager who can find out whether you can travel around Africa with a jib, or how much it costs to rent a certain bit of kit etc. The reason a Director might rely on a Cameraman for this kind of research is that you may already have experienced theses situations before. Years of travelling around filming things gives you experience and knowledge that can't always be looked up on the internet. It is this first hand knowledge is often vital in the early planning stages of a shoot.
4) How far does your degree take you when applying for jobs?
When getting work as a cameraman, it is your experience that counts, not your academic achievement. However, entry level positions such as Runners or Junior Researchers are always oversubscribed, so any advantage you might have over others is a good thing. Languages are often useful, as is specialist knowledge. If a programme is being made about Machu Picchu and you studied Spanish and Ancient History at University, then you are more likely to get hired than the next person.
The connections you make at university might also be useful. If a director is looking for an Assistant Camera Operator and you happened to go to university with them, you will stand more of a chance than others.
This might sound unfair, and it is, but in film and TV the old adage about "it's not what you know, it's who you know" is very true. Think of if this way: the industry is based around trust. People are agreeing to pay for your skills, before you have proved your worth. For this to work, they need to trust you are good at what you do. People tend to trust people they know, or their colleagues know, over strangers.
Lenses vary hugely in price, so what do you get for your money?
Let's take a look at a few 50mm lenses. 50mm probably the most commonly used lenses, manufacturers sell large numbers of them, and every manufacturer makes a 50mm, so it is easy to compare them.
This is by no means a complete list of all 50mm lenses, but just illustrates the price difference.
|Price in Dollars
| Zeiss 1.4
| Canon 1.2
| Ziess CP2 1.5
| Canon CNE 1.3
Cooke s4 mini 2.8
Arri Master Prime
As you go up the price range two things change, the housing that the lens is in and the optical quality of the glass.
The Canon 1.8 is so cheap, it isn't fair to criticise the lens, for what you pay it is a bargain. However, the housing is light weight and plastic, the focus ring is so small that it is very tough to use. This lens is really designed solely for photographers using auto focus. I have seen people using these lenses for video, but I would only advise it if you are on a really tight budget.
The Canon 1.4 has a better focus ring and is easier to use manually. The housing is slightly better than the 1.8
The Canon 1.2 is an L series lens, so the housing is weather sealed and a bit tougher. Through the canon EF range, the more you pay the faster the lens becomes.
If using a lens for video, I would choose the Zeiss 1.4 over the Canon 1.2. Zeiss make a good solid metal housing for their lenses. The focus throw on the Zeiss is also larger than on the Canon lenses, which makes manual focusing much easier. Zeiss lenses also hard stop at infinity. Canon EOS lenses are designed with auto focus in mind, the focus ring will circle around forever, pushing a touch past infinity and then you have to bring it back. With the Zeiss lens, if you just roll it all the way and infinity is where the focus barrel stops, altogether much better when you are filming. Leica is another lens similar to Zeiss in this aspect, and also similar in terms of cost and build quality. The image of the Leica and Zeiss do vary, but which you prefer is down to individual taste.
The Arri Master Prime
The next set of lenses are a big step up both in price and the quality of the housing. Zeiss Compact Primes have been around for a while and in a similar price bracket are the new Canon CNE range. One of the things you get at this price range is uniformity. All of the lenses in these sets are roughly the same length and barrel size. This means changing lenses is quicker, as there is no need to adjust matte boxes or moose bars as you may have to with stills lenses, which all tend to vary in size. Another big change is that the iris control is alway on the lens itself, this is obviously a massive plus when shooting. The distance marks on the lens are accurate and the lenses can be easily used by a focus puller. (Stills lenses are really tricky in this regard as you can roll the focus around indefinitely and loose all of your focus marks.)
So how much should you spend on your lens if looking at the housing and mechanics alone? This really depends on what type of work you do now, or see yourself doing in the future. If you think you'll be on a film or commercial set then spending the extra to get the dedicated lenses could be a good idea.
If you are a solo operator and don't see yourself using a focus puller very often, the decision is a bit more difficult. Having a big focus throw and an external iris wheel are very nice, but they aren't essential, and you also have to deal with the added weight.
So what about the quality of the glass and the image you get from the lens? At the lower end of the cinema lens range, the quality of the glass is very similar to the optics used on the top end still lenses. For example the Zeiss CP2 are close to the Zeiss ZE and ZF stills glass, and the Canon CNE range is similar to the L series EOS lenses. There are however a few differences. You tend to get much more dramatic lens flare on the cinema lenses, simply because the lens is that much bigger on the front end. I have also noticed the Canon CNE lenses create very round out of focus highlights, whereas the still lenses have an octagonal shape to them, and that is due to the larger number of iris blades on the cine primes. It is said that the better quality glass is cherry picked for the cine lenses and that these lenses are also given better coatings.
There are also clear differences between manufacturers and the type of image the glass produces. Generally speaking, the more you pay the less the lens breathes, contrast also tends to be better and the way the lens deals with highlights improves. I have noticed reds really pop out on Canon lenses, whereas Zeiss have a slightly colder, clinical look to them, which I quite like. Leica tend to produce a beautiful buttery smoothness in the out of focus bokeh, which I am also a fan of.
With lenses you need to pay a huge amount of extra cash, to get a small increase in the quality of the image. Another thing to note here is that in many situations that extra money won't show. If the lens is stopped down and the lighting is very controlled, there often isn't much to choose between two lenses, even though they maybe hundreds of dollars apart. However, open those lenses up and film in some more unusual lighting conditions and the more expensive lens with likely start to shine.
The video below, as unscientific as it is, shows how the 125 dollar Canon compares to the 20k Arri Master Prime.
Before you rush out and buy a Canon 1.8f, remember that this video doesn't really show much of the Master Prime. Go and watch The Danish Girl at the Cinema, which was shot on Master Primes, it looks unbelivable. Much of it looks like it was shot wide open at T1.3. It's also worth noting that Fstop and Tstop measurements are not the same. F stop is relative to the size of the lens, Tstop is not. So the T stop in most cases will be much faster than the Fstop equivalent.
Another thing to say here is, I have only once seen what I have shot projecting on to a cinema screen, but it's a humbling experience. Every details is really visible when you are looking at a giant screen. I suspect if you were to watch this lens test at your local cinema, instead of on your iPad, you would start notice a few more details.
Unlike cameras, lenses don't seem to loose much value over time, so it makes sense to spend a bit more money on lenses if you can afford to. If you are shooting with a small crew and always pull focus for yourself you can probably get away with stills lenses. If you can afford to do so, it is well worth getting something at the top of this range, from Leica or Zeiss who make stills lenses with metal housings, large focus throws and in some cases external irises. If you can't afford this, then go for something like the Canon 1.4f or similar.
The video below is from Shane Hurlbut's crew and it compares Canon L, Leica R and Zeiss CP2s
There is also a really in depth lens comparison here, which looks at Ziess CP2s, Ziess Super Speeds, Canon CN-E and Leica Sumilux Cs amoung others.
In the cine lens range it really depends on the work you are getting and your ability to get your lenses onto a job. If you buy a set of Zeiss lenses and then a director says they really want to shoot with Cooke, you'll end up having to rent. If you really love the look of a certain lens and can persuade any director that they are absolutely the best lenses for the job, then the investment could well pay off.
Don't be put off by pixel peepers and geeks on forums. Buy the lenses that you can afford and which have the look that you like. A lot of it is subjective anyway, some like the Leica look, others hate it, some like ziess, some don't. Few lenses are perfect and you are always going to get a certain amount of breathing, distortion and other flaws (unless Master Primes are in your budget).
Buying a set of primes could easily cost as much as your camera, but on the plus side they will certainly out live it by many many years.
Working as cameraman, we are often alone in our craft, in the sense there is usually only one of us on the shoot. There is rarely another shooter there to bounce ideas off, or learn something different from.
One of the site's readers, Oli Cohen, remarked that he found it hard to find a mentor working as a DoP. With this in mind I thought I'd write down a few places where I have found peices of inspiration.
Here are a few places I use to start us off.
Eric Steelberg shot Juno and Up in the Air. His Instagram feed is full of interesting shots taken on and off set.
rpstam is Rodrigo Prieto who shot The Wolf of Wall Street
Chivexp is Emmanuel Lubezki. Recently he has been posting lots of stills from the movie Reverant. He also shot Birdman, Gravity, The Tree of Life, Children of Men and Y Tu Mama Tambien.
This is a fun one to follow. There are some amazing on set shots on this account from all kinds of movies. If you want to see Jack Nicholson goofing around on the set of The Shining with Stanley Kubrick, this is a place to get it.
Edu Grau shot A Single Man for Tom for when he was 27. Yeah 27, makes you feel slightly sick doens't it. Anyway, he is good to follow and often post slightly odd, stark, but beautiful shots.
Rob Hardy BSC British Cinematographer who shot Ex Machina. This feed has some fantastic looking shots that all have a certain specific style to them.
Really beautiful shots on Reed Morano's feed. She is the only woman on this very male dominated list, in what I guess is a very male dominated profession.
Phedon Papamichael shot the superbly charming and beautiful film Nebraska.
Roger Deakins doesn't need much of an introduction. He has worked with The Cohen Brothers, Sam Mendes.. He shot Shawshank Redemption, Skyfall, No Country for Old Men, True Grit, Fargo, Oh Brother Where art thou, The Big Lebowski, to name just a few.
Here are a few DPs who put out lots of interesting and useful information on their own personal websites
The world's favourite DP Roger Deakins has his own site where is unbelievably helpful and friendly offering advice and help to those who comment. I am not going to list his credit, you know what he shot.
Shane Hurlbut is often setting up some crazy test to see whether one lens is better than the other. He puts a huge amount of work into these and is good about sharing his information and communicating with his readers.
This list could go on and on, but I think I'll leave it there and ask you about where you find inspiration or mentors.
Still in need of inspiration? Check out the film below of DoPs on the craft of Cinamatography.
Three and half years ago I asked the same question: should I buy the new Canon C300? At that time the market was a very different place, many people were still shooting on DSLRs and the C300 solved many of the problems inherent in shooting video with a stills camera. The C300 mark ii enters a market awash with cameras that shoot 4k and high frame rates.
There are plenty of options out there. For those on a small budget, cameras like the Panasonic GH4 and Sony's A7s both shoot 4k and have good low light abilitiy. Blackmagic Design have entered the market and are supplying low cost 4k options like the URSA. If you need internal ND filters and the ability to plug in XLR cables you can pay a touch more and get the Sony FS7 that has incredible specs for the price: 4k and 180fps at 1080p for $8000! Move up the price range and there is the sturdier, PL mount, Sony F5/55 and plenty of options from RED.
At $16,000 (US price) the C300 mark ii is not a cheap option. When the camera was first announced many, myself included, were disapointed with the slow motion options. People are used to seeing iphones cranking out super slow motion and expected more from at $16K camera. The mark ii manages only 100fps PAL 120fps NTSC at 1080p using a senor crop. Using a crop to achieve slow motion can be annoying on a shoot. Not only do you have to set the camera to record slow motion, you also then have to change lenses or reposition as you will now be too far zoomed in on the shot you had.
Sony has gone some way to improve camera ergonomics. The F5/55 sit comfortably on the shoulder, and even the cheaper FS7 isn't bad at all with a dedicated eye peice and removable hand grip.
Having said this, up until now, all we have had to look at is stats, numbers on paper. The pictures the camera produces is really what matters. The people who pay my bills might occasionally require slow motion, but above all else I need to supply them with fantastic looking pictures. A couple of films were recently released that piqued my interest.
There was a lot I liked here. The dynamic range is obviously pretty impressive. Lots of shots straight into the sun and the camera really holds on to the detail in shadows. The skin tones looked great and I liked the colour and tones generally, especially inside the house.
If the first video got me mildly interested, this next one started to draw me in a bit.
It's the shots inside the Japanese house where the woman inside looks like she hasn't even been lit. Of course this is a video produced by Canon marketing and for all I know there could be a massive poly board bouncing some very subtle fill back on the actors face, but it doesn't look that way. Again the tones are stunning, soft natural and not at all vivid or video ish.
Although most of the footage looks like it was shot on a slightly overcast day, you can clearly see the sun is smashing through in this shot. The trees have shadows amongst them and shadows are being cast on the roof of the building opposite around the chimney. Yet, despite all this sunlight we aren't loosing too much detail in the trees and the actor's face is still look good in a dark, un lit room.
The next video that is well worth a look at is this one that shows of the Canon's auto focus function. Auto focus has always been something I associate with home video cameras from the 19080s, but this video might change that.
I had thought auto focus for video a horrible idea: motors constantly hunting for the focus point, rapidly shifting in and out of focus. This looks very different though. When the model turns away from the camera the face following software stops, and then picks her back up when she completes her turn. (this happens 1 minute in). The auto focus system doesn't freak out and focus on the pony tail or the back wall, it just sits and waits to pick the models face back up like a camera operator would. The face against the mirror trick is also very impressive (around 1:25). At first I thought I wouldn't have much use for a full auto focus system, but what about if the camera is mounted on a stabilised gimbal, or maybe on a jib? It could be a very useful function, if it works as well as this video suggests.
I am also interested in the dual pixel focus guide.(1:45) The amount of times directors have wanted a ridiculously difficult pull focus, where a presenter is walking towards camera whilst delivering their lines. The safe thing to do is stop down, but so often directors want to shoot wide open, not realising just how hard that pull will be when you are operating by yourself. Having an indicator that says whether you are focusing too far or to close from the subject could be very useful. Again, it is hard to say how this would work in a real life situation, but it is only a few months until the camera is out and reviews will start coming in.
Here is the full video without all the camera info
If you want to see the focus being tested out by someone other than the camera manufacturers, check Dan Chung at Newshooter.com The video is below and the full article can be found here.
I like the fact that focusing speed can be selected, and you can manually choose which person to focus on when there are two people in shot.
So what else has changed with the updated C300? I have covered this a bit in a previous article comparing the C300 mark ii to Sony's FS7 and F5, so I'll keep it brief.
1) The top handle has been improved. A single screw thread has been replaced by a much more solid offering.
2) All camera buttons now illuminate and make less noise when you push them.
3) A basic mic has been added so you can shoot without the LCD.
4) A new additional unit can be attached that take in audio, but without the LCD screen
5) The monitor cables are no longer hard wired
6) The whole camera is in a stronger diecast housing.
7) Extra ND added (8 and 10 stops)
8) 2k and 4k in camera
9) 4 channels of audio at 24 bit (previously 2 at 16bit)
10) 15 stops dynamic range
11) 120fps Slow mo (crop) at HD.
12) High ISO at 102400 Canon are saying the camera has great low light ability, and it that is almost certainly going to be true.
13) Built in "looks" to better match the C300 with other cameras such as Alexa, Sony F55 etc.
14) Records higher bit rate to faster cards to stop rolling shutter.
If you haven't seen it, the guys from Zacuto give a really good all round chat about what has changed with a representative from Canon. It's 25 mins long, but worth a look if the camera is on your radar.
So, to come back to my original question: is this camera is worth buying or not? I know there are going to be hoards of camera owners pulling their hair out here saying WHAT! $16K for a camera that under performs cameras that can be bought for half the price!! I know where they are coming from, it seems a little highly priced to me too. There are pluses the C300 mark2 will have against it rivals. In the broadcast world it has a fantastic reputation, massive amounts of TV has been shot on the C300. They have also proved themselves as absloutely rock solid. I have used mine solidly for three and a half years, I have lugged it all over the world and it hasn't given me any problems. This may not be true of RED or Blackmagic Design, but it is almost certainly the case with Sony's cameras as well, which I have also owned in the past.
My next comparison would be to Sony's F5, which shoots nice pictures, can be easily upgraded to shoot 4k. Despite being over 2 years old the F5 is still ahead of the C300 mark ii shooting 180fps. This is a hugely popular camera, particularly in the world of sports TV where high frame rates are often needed.
As a personal preference, I like the look so far of the C300 mark ii over the Sony F5, however, I prefer Sony's ergonomics and the way the F5/55 sits on your shoulder. The auto focus thing may be a gimic, but I'd certainly be keen to try it out, so far my impression has been that it looks pretty good. At very least the auto focus will be useful for gimbal and jib operating. The F5 is a bit more versatile when it comes to lenses. Being able to chuck a PL lens on when needed, and then switch over to an EOS lens with an adapter is another big plus for the F5.
The fact that a lot is currently shot on the C300, could push me towards the mark ii. If a documentary already has material shot by shooting APs on a C300, they may want their main camera to be the mark ii. The post production process is fairly well geared to the C300, but then that is also true of the Sony cameras as well.
In part my camera buying decisions are dictated by the desires of directors. To an extent I will persuade a director to shoot on a certain camera, but often people come to me and say "we really want to shoot on x" If people start to lean toward the C300 mark ii, I can well see myself buying one, for now I think I'll wait and see how the camera is received when it comes out in September.
The new Ronin M is half the weight of the original Ronin, it is designed specifically for smaller cameras, but the motors are strong enough to take fairly heavy set ups. My first question when this came out was "Will the Canon c300 work with the Dji Ronin M." Happily the answer is yes, so I immediately bought one.
As you can see, there is plenty of room around the sides of the camera, once you have removed the handle grip and the eyepiece (there is a locking screw on them underside of viewfinder).
With light prime lenses you can get full range of movement with the Ronin M. However, once you add heavier zoom lenses the camera becomes front heavy and you have to shift the baseplate back. This limits your tilt range somewhat, as the top of the camera the hits the back of the Ronin. This isnt a huge issue on some lenses as the angle you can get is still pretty steep.
This is the Tokina 11-16mm on maximum tilt up. It can tilt all the way down, but the back of the eyepiece area just touches the back of the Ronin M at this angle. Obviously, the heavier the lens the further you need to shift the camera plate back and the smaller the angle will be when you tilt up.
This is the 17-55mm, which is a pretty heavy image stabilized lens. This is at the maximum up tilt angle and the back of the camera is touching the Ronin at this point.
Lots of people own the 16-35mm, which I don't have, but to give you an idea the 16-35mm mark2 Canon weighs 640g (the mark 1 is slightly lighter), the 17-55mm weighs 645g so the angle will be pretty similar.
If you want to use heavier lenses and keep the full tilt range there is a solution from Cinemilled. Cinemilled have made tilt extension arms so you can lower the camera further, allowing you to tilt all the way up. There is already a thread on the bottom of the Ronin M tilt arms, so the Cinemilled arms will just screw straight in.
Audio options with the C300 on a Ronin gimbal.
The next issue to deal with on the C300 when pairing it up with the Ronin M is audio. There are a couple of options here. Firstly there is an audio input minijack just above the grip handle. You can't control the level of this to my knowledge, so you are going to end up with auto levels, good only as a guide track, but at least you will have something to synch to the sound recordist's audio. UPDATE - You can control the levels of the mini jack input inside the menu under audio. When you plug your radio mic receiver or any other mic using a mini jack cable, the auido options turn from grey to white on the camera menu and you can now set the audio levels.
A radio mic is pretty easy to mount on the cross bar with a hot shoe mount. I run a small mini jack to mini jack from my radio mic to the mic input on the camera.
The second option is to mount the C300 LCD unit to the cross bar. This does limit your range of movement somewhat and the motors will have to work a bit harder as they are swinging two thick cables around.
At present, the monitor mounting bracket from DJI (above) isn't availble in the UK. I have one on order from CVP, but orders seem backed up. There are a couple of mounting screw holes as you can see in the picture above. They are the normal 1/4" and 3/8" so you can attach a monitor directly to it, or via a Noga arm, ball mount or simliar so you can move the monitor about. I'll probably mount my TV logic 5.6 via a noga arm here, as it is a light monitor. There is a similar DJI mount out for the original Ronin, but it is slightly larger, as the Ronin has a wider bar. Again, Cinemilled have a shim for this if you want to use the original Ronin monitor mount. I also have also ordered a very thin BNC to allow the unit to move freely.
In the meantime I have ordered this 3rd party solution from Amazon:SMALLRIG Clamp Mount V2 w/ Ball Head Cold Shoe Mount and CoolClamp. This is wide enough to fit on to the Ronin M bar and also has a cold shoe, so I could mount the C300 LCD if needed. The cold shoe screws into a ball head on a 1/4 inch mount so I can remove the cold shoe and screw directly into a monitor instead. There are lots of other mounting options from Small Rig on Amazon.
After hours of playing around with various configurations I mounted the C300 LCD on the cross bar of the Ronin M with the Small Rig clamp.
This worked well enough, except the LCD cables are only just long enough, limiting your camera tilt moves somewhat. (they are just long enough to pan left and right.)
You could also use a magic arm, I played around with my Noga arm and got the LCD to just about work, like this.
The trick to making this work is getting the cables as close as possible to the camera. The best configuration I worked out was to put the LCD further back. Every milimeter helps here as the cables are not quite long enough.
On the whole I think I will stick to using my 5.6 TV logic monitor with an extra thin BNC cable. I don't like the idea of using the LCD as I think it will only be a matter of time before the cables get damaged using them in this way. For the occasional situation where you don't have a sound recordist and audio is essential, this would work, but for more extreme moves and better control, the seperate monitor is definitely the best solution. Below you can see my TV logic 5.6 mounted to the Ronin with a portabrace cover to provide a sun shade.
Also worthwhile, I have put on a thin BNC cable to keep the weight down and improve manoeuvrability. It is also worth having a right angle bnc connector to keep the cables in the right place.
Another good thing about pairing the C300 with the Ronin M is the fact that the hand grip can be relocated. Since you have to take the hand grip off anyway, it makes sense to mount it onto the Ronin M and that way you will have record on and off control and iris or ISO control. To do this you will need a grip relocatator from Zacutto together with a clamp like the one above and a screw in spud from Redrock or Zacuto make a "zud". The Spud or zud serves to connect the zacuto 15mm rod clamp to the 3party clamp. For more info on how to do this check out Cinema 5d
Lots more to come with the Ronin M. I'll be posting something about the settings and hopefully get some video footage up before too long.